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What Is Ransomware? What To Do If You Get Ransomware?

by Mubi 

What is ransomware?

Ransomware is like a computer monster that locks your files until you give it money. It’s a bad program that people use to trick others into paying them to get their files back. Let’s learn more about ransomware in this article.

Ransomware is a sneaky computer attack that makes your files secret and you can’t open them. The bad people who did it ask for money, usually in special online money, to give you the code to unlock your files or to let you use your computer again.

Ransomware attacks happen when bad people send tricky emails or downloads that make your computer sick. If you open these, your computer gets locked, and they tell you to pay money to fix it. They threaten you if you don’t pay. So, it’s important not to open strange emails or downloads to keep your computer safe!

Before we learn about the different types of ransomware and explore what to do if you get ransomware, let’s first answer the primary question, “What is ransomware?”

What is ransomware?


Ransomware is a bad computer program that locks your files or stops you from using your computer until you pay money to the person who made the program. People can get tricked into opening emails or downloads that carry this program.

Once it’s in your computer, it makes your files unreadable or your whole computer unusable until you give them money. It’s important to be careful with emails and downloads from unknown sources to stay safe from ransomware!

The people who use ransomware typically demand payment in cryptocurrency, a special form of digital currency that is challenging to trace. This anonymity makes it difficult to apprehend the individuals responsible.

The ransom amount requested can vary, ranging from a small to a substantial sum, depending on the perceived value of the locked files to the victim. And they say you have to pay quickly, or they might delete your stuff or share private things about you. It’s not nice!

Ransomware is scary because it puts pressure on people and companies. They have to decide whether to pay the attackers to get their stuff back or not pay and lose important data. and at times, paying the ransom might seem like the only option to regain access to your data, despite it being an undesirable solution. Cybercriminals continuously devise new methods, making the situation increasingly difficult for everyone involved.

Staying safe from ransomware is like locking the doors of your house to keep thieves out. You need to update your computer regularly, just like getting new locks for your doors, to fix any weak spots. Also, having special tools on your computer, like antivirus software, is like having a security guard who checks everyone at the door to make sure they’re not bad people.

Email filters function as gatekeepers, preventing suspicious emails from entering your inbox, similar to how you wouldn’t open your door to strangers. These measures play a vital role in maintaining your computer’s security and protecting it from cyber-attacks. Understanding “What is ransomware” is essential to recognize and thwart such threats effectively.

What are the different types of ransomware?

Ransomware comes in different forms, and it’s important to know about them to protect yourself from these attacks. Knowing how they work can help keep your computer safe. Here, we explore the different categories of ransomware and their unique attributes:

What are the different types of ransomware?

  • Encrypting ransomware
  • Locker ransomware
  • Scareware
  • Doxware or Leakware
  • RaaS (Ransomware as a Service)

Encrypting ransomware:

Encrypting ransomware is a common type that locks up your files, so you can’t use them. The bad guys ask for money in exchange for a special code that unlocks your files. They use really strong codes, so it’s hard to unlock the files without their special key.

Locker ransomware:

Locker ransomware doesn’t lock just your files; it locks your whole computer! It shows a big message pretending to be from the police and says you did something wrong. To use your computer again, you have to pay a fine. This kind of ransomware is especially common on phones, where it takes over the whole screen and you can’t do anything.


Scareware is like a computer trickster. It doesn’t lock your files or computer, but it shows fake messages saying your computer has problems. These messages might say you have viruses or other issues, even if you don’t. Then, it tries to scare you into buying fake solutions that you don’t really need. It’s all about trying to make you worried and trick you into paying for things you don’t have to.

Doxware or Leakware:

Doxware is a form of ransomware that not only encrypts your files but also threatens to publicly expose your private information unless a ransom is paid. Perpetrators of this attack gain access to sensitive data, using it to coerce victims into compliance. This tactic is particularly alarming for individuals or organizations with confidential information, necessitating swift action to prevent their secrets from being disclosed online.

RaaS (Ransomware as a Service):

Ransomware as a service is like a bad business where some people make harmful software, and others pay to use it for attacks. The ones who made the software get part of the money paid as ransom. This makes it easier for anyone, even if they’re not very good with computers, to commit these cybercrimes. It’s a big worry for online safety.

How does ransomware work?

Ransomware is like a sneaky computer thief. First, it gets into a computer. Then, it locks up important files or shows scary messages, asking for money to fix the problem. It’s important to know how this works to protect computers and data from these sneaky attacks. Here, we break down the workings of ransomware into key stages:

How does ransomware work?

  • Infection
  • Encryption or locking
  • Ransom note
  • Payment and decryption
  • Post-attack consequences


Ransomware is like a computer virus that sneaks in through emails or bad websites. When someone clicks on something harmful, the virus gets inside the computer. Sometimes, it uses computer weaknesses to get in. It’s important to be careful and keep the computer updated to stay safe from these viruses.

Encryption or locking:

Ransomware is like a computer monster that locks your files or even your whole computer. It uses special codes to do this, and only the bad guys who sent the monster have the key to unlock your stuff. This means you can’t use your computer or get to your important files until you pay them money. It’s like having your computer held hostage until you give the bad guys what they want.

Ransom note:

After the computer monster encrypts your files, it displays a message on the screen, instructing you to pay a ransom to regain access to your files. The message specifies a deadline, threatening to delete or publicly expose your files on the internet if the payment is not made in time. Typically, the perpetrators demand payment in cryptocurrency, a digital form of money that is difficult to trace back to them.

Payment and decryption:

When your files are encrypted, the attackers typically demand payment of a ransom, often in the form of specialized digital currency. Upon payment, they may supply you with a secret code to decrypt your files. However, there is no assurance that they will provide the decryption key even after receiving the payment, leading to an uncertain outcome.

Post-attack consequences:

If someone pays the money and gets their files back, there can still be big problems. Companies might lose money and have a bad reputation. People can feel really upset and lose money too. Paying the bad guys also makes them do more bad things. So, it’s better to tell the police and experts for help and not pay the money.

What happens if you don’t pay ransomware?

What happens if you don’t pay ransomware?

Ransomware attacks put people in a tough spot: either give money to the bad guys and support their crimes or don’t pay and deal with the consequences. Here, we explore the outcomes and challenges associated with not paying for ransomware:

  • Data loss
  • Financial impact
  • Reputation damage
  • Operational disruptions
  • Encouraging future attacks

Data loss:

If you don’t pay ransomware, you might lose important files forever. The bad guys lock the files, and without the special key, you can’t open them. This could mean losing important school projects, family photos, or work documents. It’s like losing something really valuable, and there’s no way to get it back. So it’s important to be careful online and have backups of your important stuff to avoid this problem!

Financial impact:

Ransomware attacks can cost a lot of money, even if the ransom isn’t paid. For businesses, this might involve expenses for computer repairs, enhancing cybersecurity measures, and fines in case of data breaches. Individuals may need to pay for computer repairs or seek assistance from experts, which can also be costly. These attacks not only impact computers but can also significantly affect one’s finances.

Reputation damage:

When a company gets attacked by ransomware, people might stop trusting them to keep their information safe. This can make customers go away, and the company might find it hard to get back its good reputation even after fixing the problem. So, it’s not just about fixing computers; it’s also about people losing faith in the company.

Operational disruptions:

A ransomware attack can disrupt businesses and essential services, including hospitals and utilities, leading to delays in providing necessary assistance to people. Companies may incur substantial financial losses. The longer the disruption persists, the more severe the impact, potentially causing enduring effects on the affected organizations.

Encouraging future attacks:

If people pay the ransom, it tells the bad guys that their plan works, so they keep doing it. This means more and more attacks might happen, and they could become even trickier to stop. It’s like saying “yes” to bullies; they’ll keep doing bad things if they think it’s working. So, it’s important not to give in to their demands and report the incident to stop this cycle.

What to do if you get ransomware?

What to do if you get ransomware?

If you encounter a ransomware attack, it’s really important to act fast and smart. Doing the right things quickly can help you fix the situation and get your files back. Here, we outline the steps individuals and organizations should follow if they fall victim to a ransomware attack:

  • Isolate infected systems
  • Do not pay the ransom
  • Report the attack
  • Consult with cybersecurity experts
  • Restore from backup
  • Implement security measures
  • Consider professional help for decryption

Isolate infected systems:

If you detect a ransomware attack on one of your devices, the initial step is to isolate it from the internet and other devices. This action prevents the malicious software from spreading to other devices, such as your phone or another computer, and helps contain the threat. It’s like keeping a sick person away from others to avoid spreading the sickness.

Do not pay the ransom:

If your files or computer are taken by ransomware, it might seem like paying money will get them back. But experts say you shouldn’t do that. Even if you pay, there’s no promise you’ll get your stuff back, and it encourages the bad guys to keep doing it. Instead, listen to experts and report the problem to the right people. They can help you find other ways to get your things back without giving in to the bad guys.

Report the attack:

If your computer falls victim to a ransomware attack, it’s crucial to report the incident to the police or cybercrime units immediately. Informing law enforcement is essential for catching the perpetrators. Additionally, report the attack to cybersecurity groups and experts who can assist you. The more people are aware of these incidents, the greater the chance of stopping these cybercriminals and preventing further attacks.

Consult with cybersecurity experts:

If your computer is attacked by ransomware, talk to cybersecurity experts. They know a lot about these attacks and can help figure out how to get your files back. They can also teach you how to protect your computer better in the future. Remember, they’re like superheroes for your computer!

Restore from backup:

If you have copies of your files saved in a safe place, like a backup, you can use those copies to replace the infected ones. Make sure the bad software is gone from your computer before you put the good files back. It’s like using spare parts to fix something that’s broken!

Implement security measures:

After fixing your computer from a ransomware attack, make it super strong against bad stuff! Update all programs, like games and apps, so they have special shields to protect against hackers. Put a strong guard dog (antivirus software) on your computer and keep it up-to-date. Teach everyone how to be careful online, especially about clicking on strange emails or links. This way, your computer stays safe and happy!

Consider professional help for decryption:

Sometimes, special helpers like detectives might have magic keys to unlock your files without paying the bad guys. Talk to them and ask for their help. But be careful and make sure they are real helpers, not tricksters, so you don’t get into more trouble.


Ransomware is like a sneaky computer villain. It’s a type of software that can lock your important files and demand money to unlock them. This can happen to anyone using a computer. Knowing about different types of ransomware and how they work is important because it helps us learn how to protect our computers better. Imagine it’s like knowing about different tricks a bad magician might use, so we can avoid falling for them and keep our digital stuff safe!

About the author 

Mubi Ace

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